Here’s our alphabetical list of the top 100 or so most popular scientists on the Famous Scientists website, ordered by surname.

Alternatively, if you’re looking for more scientists in particular fields, you could try our pages here:

→ Biologists & Health Scientists

→ Chemists

→ Geologists & Paleontologists

→ Mathematicians

→ Physicists

→ Scientists in Ancient Times

The iridium layer, dinosaur death by meteorite impact, and subatomic particle discoveries.

Discovered that wires carrying electric current can attract and repel magnetically; founded electromagnetic theory.

An ancient scientific revolution: the first person in history to recognize that our planet is free in space and does not need to sit on something.

Ancient animals, fossils, and paleontology: discovered the first complete specimen of a plesiosaur; deduced the diets of dinosaurs.

Founded the sciences of mechanics and hydrostatics, calculated pi precisely, devised the law of exponents, created new geometrical proofs, invented numerous ingenious mechanical devices and more.

Promoted the idea that the earth follows a circular orbit around the sun eighteen centuries before Nicolaus Copernicus resurrected the idea.

A genius whose philosophical ideas are still taught, but whose contributions to science retarded progress for almost two millennia.

The first scientist to realize that elements can exist in the form of molecules rather than as individual atoms; originator of Avogadro’s law.

Shook the foundations of Aristotle’s scientific influence popularizing the scientific method, grounding science in experiments and observations rather than logic-based arguments.

Inventor of the metal detector, the telephone, and the photophone – the first device to carry the human voice using light.

Discovered the Bernoulli Effect explaining how aircraft wings generate lift; formulated a kinetic theory relating the phenomenon of temperature to particle speeds in gases; made major discoveries in the theory of risk.

The first woman to qualify as a physician in America; founder of America’s first medical school for women.

Founded quantum mechanics when he remodeled the atom so electrons occupied ‘allowed’ orbits around the nucleus while all other orbits were forbidden; architect of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics.

Transformed chemistry from a field bogged down in alchemy and mysticism into one based on measurement. He defined elements, compounds and mixtures; and he discovered the first gas law – Boyle’s Law.

Produced the best star catalog that had ever been compiled and measured the orbit of Mars with unprecedented accuracy, paving the way for Kepler’s laws of planetary motion and Newton’s law of gravity.

Established zero as a number and defined its mathematical properties; discovered the formula for solving quadratic equations.

Discovered cesium and rubidium; discovered the antidote to arsenic poisoning; invented the zinc-carbon battery and flash photography; revealed the secrets of geysers.

Founder of modern neuroscience: proved the neuron doctrine, which says that neurons behave as biochemically distinct cells rather than a network of interlinked cells.

A founder of 20th century environmentalism, her book

*Silent Spring*led to a reappraisal of the effect of chemicals such as DDT on the environment, leading to bans and heavy restrictions.

Improved the agricultural economy of the United States by promoting nitrogen-providing peanuts as an alternative crop to cotton to prevent soil depletion.

Discovered the neutron and led the British scientists who worked on the Manhattan Project.

Discovered that massive stars can collapse under their own gravity to reach infinite density. Today we call these collapsed stars black holes.

Started the scientific revolution with his book

*The Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres*, explaining his belief that the solar system is centered on the sun not on the earth.

Oscar winning marine pioneer; coinvented the breathe-on-demand valve for SCUBA diving; popularized marine biology with several dramatic television series.

Codiscovered the chemical elements radium and polonium; made numerous pioneering contributions to the study of radioactive elements; carried out the first research into the treatment of tumors with radiation.

Dalton’s Atomic Theory is the basis of chemistry; discovered Gay-Lussac’s Law relating gases’ temperature, volume, and pressure; discovered the law of partial gas pressures.

Authored one of the most famous books in history,

*On the Origin of Species*, in which he described and provided evidence for the theory of evolution by natural selection.

Devised an atomic theory featuring tiny particles always in motion interacting through collisions; advocated a universe containing an infinity of diverse inhabited worlds governed by natural, mechanistic laws rather than gods; deduced that the light of stars explains the Milky Way’s appearance; discovered that a cone’s volume is one-third that of the cylinder with the same base and height.

One of the great philosophers; advocate of skepticism in the scientific method; creator of new mathematical ideas including the independent founding of analytical geometry. Cartesian coordinates are named in his honor.

A founder of the search for extraterrestrial intelligence; devised the Drake equation to estimate the number of intelligent civilizations in our galaxy; first person to map the center of the Milky Way galaxy.

Einstein’s theories of special & general relativity delivered a remarkable transformation in our understanding of light, gravity and time, while special relativity yielded the most famous equation in history, E = mc

^{2}. Einstein explained the photoelectric effect and provided powerful evidence that atoms and molecules actually exist.

Accurately calculated Earth’s size 2,500 years ago; founded the science of geography; and devised the famous prime number sieve.

Authored

*Elements*, the most famous and most published mathematical work in history; another great work,

*Optics*, explained light’s behavior using geometrical principles – the basis of artistic perspective, astronomical methods and navigation methods for more than two thousand years.

Published more mathematics than any other single mathematician, much of it groundbreaking. An astonishing fraction of the total research work in mathematics and the physical sciences between 1730 and 1780 was carried out solely by Euler.

Discovered electromagnetic induction; devised Faraday’s laws of electrolysis; discovered the first experimental link between light and magnetism; carried out the first room-temperature liquefaction of a gas; discovered benzene.

Co-founded the disciplines of analytic geometry and probability theory and was a key player in the invention of calculus. There’s more to Fermat than his famous last theorem.

The rebirth of Western mathematics: Fibonacci’s

*Book of Calculation*introduced the Indian number system, now used worldwide, to Europe.

Invented experimental design; devised the statistical concept of variance; unified evolution by natural selection with Mendel’s rules of inheritance defining the new field of population genetics.

Discovered that treating wounds and infections with antiseptic agents caused more deaths than if no action was taken. Discovered penicillin and predicted the rise of antibiotic resistant bacteria.

A founding father of the USA, Franklin shaped our understanding of electricity, coined the electrical terms positive and negative, and invented the lightning rod and bifocal spectacles.

Provided much of the experimental data used to establish the structure of DNA. Discovered that DNA can exist in two forms. Established that coal acts as a molecular sieve.

Began his medical practice as a physician to gladiators and established a link between diet and health. Galen created a flawed doctrine that dominated Western and Arab medicine for 1,500 years.

The father of modern science, Galileo discovered the first moons ever known to orbit another planet and that the Milky Way is made of stars. He rationalized how objects are affected by gravity, stated the principle of inertia, and proposed the first theory of relativity.

Discovered that the most abundant chemical elements in stars and hence in the universe are hydrogen and helium.

The last master of all mathematics, Gauss revolutionized number theory and invented the method of least squares and the fast Fourier transform. His profound contributions to the physical sciences include Gauss’s Law & Gauss’s Law for Magnetism.

Self-taught mathematican who pretended to be a man. Developed elasticity theory and made significant progress in her personal program to prove Fermat’s last theorem.

Gibbs invented vector analysis and founded the sciences of modern statistical mechanics and chemical thermodynamics.

Ground breaking discoveries in chimpanzee behavior; established that chimpanzees have similar social behavior to humans and also that they make tools and eat and hunt for meat.

Explained blood circulation for the first time, showing there is a complete circuit beginning and ending in the heart.

Discovered five comets; produced an award-winning catalogue of nebulae; the brother-sister team of William & Caroline Herschel increased the number of known nebulae from about 100 to 2,500.

Discovered radio waves, proving James Clerk Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetism; discovered the photoelectric effect, providing a clue to the existence of the quantum world.

Famed for his 23 problems, Hilbert propelled mathematics to new heights. He replaced Euclid’s axioms dating from 2,000 years earlier, allowing the unification of 2D and 3D geometry; he created Hilbert Space, now essential in advanced physical science.

One of antiquity’s greatest scientists: founded the mathematical discipline of trigonometry; measured the earth-moon distance accurately; discovered the precession of the equinoxes; documented the positions and magnitudes of over 850 stars; his combinatorics work was unequalled until 1870.

The father of Western medicine: systematized medical treatments, disentangling them from religion and superstitions; trained physicians; produced a large body of medical textbooks. The famous Hippocratic Oath binds physicians to good ethical practices.

Discovered cells and wrote one of the most significant books in scientific history,

*Micrographia*, revealing the microscopic world for the first time; discovered Hooke’s Law in physics; invented the balance spring enabling pocket watches to be made.

Pioneer of electronic computers. Invented the first compiler and was the principal architect of COBOL, the most widely used computer language of the twentieth century.

Popularizer of science: discovered that dinosaurs cared for their young and some nested in colonies. Working on reactivating dormant dinosaur DNA to hatch a modern-day dinosaur.

Discovered there are galaxies beyond our own. Showed we live in a universe of many galaxies, each an isolated ‘island universe,’ separated from others by immense distances. Independently discovered and popularized Hubble’s law, believed by most cosmologists to indicate we live in an expanding universe.

Founded modern geology when he discovered how to interpret rocks. Found our planet is very much older than previously believed and devised the principle of uniformitarianism, which says that our world was shaped by natural processes such as erosion and deposition.

One of the most eminent mathematicians of late classical antiquity; scholars traveled from around the classical world to learn mathematics and astronomy at her school. Hypatia’s murder signaled the coming of the dark ages.

Codiscovered how to convert stable chemical elements into ‘designer’ radioactive elements; these have saved millions of lives and are used in tens of millions of medical procedures every year.

Discovered the solar system’s planets follow elliptical paths; showed that tides on the earth are caused mainly by the moon; proved how logarithms work; discovered the inverse square law of light intensity; his laws of planetary motion led Newton to his law of gravitation.

A poet, philosopher and scientist, Khayyam calculated the length of a year to the most accurate value ever, and showed how the intersections of conic sections can be utilized to yield geometric solutions of cubic equations.

Invented kevlar, the incredibly strong plastic used in applications ranging from body armor to tennis racquet strings.

Discovered the human blood group system, paving the way for safe blood transfusions; discovered the Rh factor in blood; proved polio is an infectious disease spread by a virus; discovered haptens.

A founder of modern chemistry; discovered oxygen’s role in combustion and respiration; discovered that water is a compound of hydrogen and oxygen; proved that diamond and charcoal are different forms of the same element, which he named carbon.

Discovered that Cepheid variable stars act as a ‘standard candle,’ opening the door to measuring the distances to far-distant stars and the discovery of galaxies beyond the Milky Way.

The father of microbiology, he used remarkable self-made lenses to discover single-celled animals and plants, bacteria, and spermatozoa.

Organized our view of the natural world with the two-part naming system we use to classify all lifeforms; named and classified about 13,000 lifeforms; broke with tradition by classifying humans in the same way as other lifeforms.

The mother of computing science; contributed to the first published computer program; was the first person to see that computers could do more than mathematical calculations, recognizing that musical notes and letters of the alphabet could be turned into numbers for manipulation by computers.

Transformed our understanding of nature: his famous equations unified the forces of electricity and magnetism, indicating that light is an electromagnetic wave. His kinetic theory established that temperature is entirely dependent on the movement of particles.

Groundbreaking genetics: showed that genes switch the physical traits of an organism on or off; discovered chromosomal crossover, which increases genetic variation in species; discovered transposition – that genes can move about within chromosomes.

Discovered that nuclear fission can produce enormous amounts of energy; codiscovered the phenomenon of radioactive recoil.

Founded the science of genetics; identified many of the rules of heredity; identified recessive and dominant traits and that traits are passed from parents to offspring in a mathematically predictable way.

Discovered the periodic table in a dream. Utilized the organizing principles of the periodic table to correctly predict the existence and properties of six new chemical elements.

Proved that every element’s identity is uniquely determined by its number of protons establishing the true organizing principle of the periodic table; correctly predicted the existence of four new chemical elements; invented the atomic battery.

Profoundly changed our understanding of nature with his law of universal gravitation and his laws of motion; invented calculus, the field of mathematics that dominates the physical sciences; generalized the binomial theorem; built the first ever reflecting telescope; showed sunlight is made of all the colors of the rainbow.

A health pioneer who transformed nursing into a respected, highly trained profession; used statistics to analyze wider health outcomes; advocated sanitary reforms largely credited with adding 20 years to life expectancy between 1871 and 1935.

Invented dynamite, the blasting cap, gelignite, and ballistite; grew enormously wealthy by patenting and manufacturing explosives; used his wealth to bequeath annual prizes in science, literature and peace.

Probably the greatest female mathematician in history, Noether’s theorem revealed a fundamental property of our universe – that for every conservation law there is an invariant. Her founding work in abstract algebra revolutionized mathematics.

Discovered electromagnetism when he found that electric current caused a nearby magnetic needle to move; discovered piperine and achieved the first isolation of the element aluminum.

The father of modern microbiology; transformed chemistry and biology with his discovery of mirror-image molecules; discovered anaerobic bacteria; established the germ theory of disease; invented food preservation by pasteurization.

Maverick giant of chemistry; formulated valence bond theory and electronegativity; founded the fields of quantum chemistry, molecular biology, and molecular genetics. Discovered the alpha-helix structure of proteins; proved that sickle-cell anemia is a molecular disease.

Founded quantum theory with his proposal that hot objects radiate only certain allowed values of energy, all of which are multiples of a number now called the Planck constant – all other values of energy are forbidden.

The Pythagoreans believed the universe was constructed using mathematics and everything could be described with numbers. They established a link between mathematics and music; proved Pythagoras’s theorem; discovered irrational numbers; and discovered the Platonic Solids.

Author of

*the Almagest*, which contained a catalogue of over a thousand stars with their positions, relative brightnesses and constellations. His mathematical model predicting the movements of the planets was unsurpassed for almost 1,500 years.

Discovered that light can donate a small amount of energy to a molecule, changing the light’s color and causing the molecule to vibrate. The color change acts as a ‘fingerprint’ for the molecule that can be used to identify molecules and detect diseases such as cancer.

A largely self-taught pure mathematician, he enriched number theory with thousands of new identities, equations and theorems.

Devised and performed the first controlled experiments in scientific history; showed that flies breed and lay eggs and do not spontaneously generate; founded modern parasitology.

The father of nuclear chemistry and nuclear physics; discovered and named the atomic nucleus, the proton, the alpha particle and the beta particle; discovered the concept of nuclear half-lives; achieved the first laboratory transformation of one element into another.

Established that the cell is the basic unit of all living things; his classification of cells is the foundation of modern histology; discovered the enzyme pepsin; identified the role microorganisms play in alcohol fermentation.

The first astrogeologist and a founder of planetary impact science; proved large craters on Earth were caused by collisions with asteroids and comets rather than volcanic activity; proposed microscopic life could travel between planets on rocks blasted into space by asteroid impacts.

The 20th century’s most influential psychologist; pioneered the science of behaviorism; discovered the power of positive reinforcement in learning; designed the first psychological experiments producing quantitatively repeatable results.

The first scientist in history, Thales looked for patterns in nature to explain the way the world worked. He replaced superstitions with science. He was the first person to use deductive logic to find new results in geometry.

Discovered the electron; invented one of the most powerful tools in analytical chemistry – the mass spectrometer; obtained the first evidence for isotopes of stable elements.

Founded modern anatomy, overthrowing misconceptions about the body that had persisted for over a thousand years.

A founder of both pathology and social medicine, Virchow correctly identified that diseases are caused by malfunctioning cells. He named leukemia and was the first to catalog and name conditions such embolism, thrombosis, chordoma, and ochronosis.

Pioneer of electrical science; invented the electric battery; wrote the first electromotive series; isolated methane for the first time; discovered a methane-air mixture could be exploded using an electric spark – the basis of the internal combustion engine.

Independently formulated the theory of evolution by natural selection; was one of the first biologists to express concern about the effects human activities were having on the natural world.

Father of the industrial revolution; radically improved the steam engine; invented high pressure steam engines; independently discovered latent heat; invented the world’s first copying machine.

Discovered continental drift, proposing that our planet once consisted of ocean surrounding a single great continent he called Pangea that split apart over many millions of years to form the continents we see today.

Thought the unthinkable, discovering that parity is not conserved; Yang-Mills theory is at the heart of the Standard Model in physics.