“One scientific epoch ended and another began with James Clerk Maxwell.”
Don’t believe me? Well, I wasn’t the first person to say it – Albert Einstein said it first.
When Einstein was asked if he had stood on the shoulders of Newton, he replied: “No, I stand on Maxwell’s shoulders.”
And Richard Feynman, another of the 20th century’s greatest physicists said:
“…the great transformations of ideas come very infrequently… we might think of Newton’s discovery of the laws of mechanics and gravitation, Maxwell’s theory of electricity and magnetism, Einstein’s theory of relativity, and… the theory of quantum mechanics.”
James Clerk Maxwell is one of the giants of physics. Unfortunately, his work is less famous than that of the other greats – possibly because his crowning glory – Maxwell’s Equations – are so hard to understand.
In producing these equations, he was the first scientist ever to unify any of nature’s fundamental forces. He discovered that electricity and magnetism are actually, at the deepest level, the same force – the electromagnetic force. In doing so, Maxwell proved that light is an electromagnetic wave and so linked electricity, magnetism and optics.
As if this achievement were not enough, his kinetic theory of gases accurately explained the origin of temperature.
He introduced probability into the physics of the very small, laying the foundation for quantum theory.
He was the first person ever to produce a color photograph; and he used mathematics to explain Saturn’s rings over 100 years before the Voyager spacecraft confirmed that he was absolutely right.
In addition to his great discoveries, in his personal life, he was known for his capacity for hard work, his friendliness, personal kindness and generosity.
Maxwell’s School Life
James Clerk Maxwell was born into a wealthy family in Edinburgh, Scotland on June 13, 1831. His father was a lawyer, and his mother died when he was only eight years old.
He attended high school in Edinburgh – Edinburgh Academy – where he published his first academic paper, ‘Oval Curves’ at the age of just 14. By this age, he had also completely memorized the Bible. Maxwell was an evangelical protestant, who believed his religion was a private affair. Like Isaac Newton, he saw no disagreements between his science and his religion.
Unable to properly understand the genius in their class, some of the boys at school gave Maxwell the name ‘Dafty.’
Maxwell’s school classes had as many 60 children in them. One of his classmates, W. Macfarlane later said of him:
Clerk Maxwell, when he entered the Academy, was somewhat rustic and somewhat eccentric. Boys called him ‘Dafty,’ and used to try to make fun of him. On one occasion I remember he turned with tremendous vigour, with a kind of demonic force, on his tormentors. I think he was let alone after that, and gradually won the respect even of the most thoughtless of his schoolfellows.
Maxwell made firm friends with Lewis Campbell, who went on to became a professor of Greek at the University of St Andrews and Peter Guthrie Tait, who became a professor of physics at the University of Edinburgh.
Maxwell at University – A Student, then Professor
Aged 16, Maxwell entered Edinburgh University for three years, taking courses in physics (it was then called natural philosophy), mathematics, and philosophy. He found the courses rather easy, leaving plenty of free time for his own private scientific research. Maxwell continued to publish serious scientific papers while studying for his degree.
Aged 19, he moved to Cambridge University, studying mathematics, becoming a Fellow of Trinity College when he was 24, sharing the Smith’s Prize for theoretical physics and mathematics with Edward Routh.
In 1856, aged 25, he was awarded Edinburgh’s highest prize in mathematics, the Straiton Gold Medal, and in the same year, he was appointed to the Chair of Natural Philosophy at the University of Aberdeen, where he stayed for four years.
During this time he formulated and published his brilliant analysis of how Saturn’s rings could be stable for a long time. Britain’s top astronomer of the time, the Astronomer Royal, Sir George Biddell Airy said of the work:
It is one of the most remarkable applications of mathematics to physics that I have ever seen.
While at Aberdeen, he gave a weekly, free lecture at a working men’s college. He also married Katherine Mary Dewar, the daughter of the University’s principal. Maxwell lost his job at Aberdeen when a merger of University colleges left him redundant.
In 1860, aged 29, he took a professorship at King’s College, London.
In this year, he also established that each molecule of air at room temperature collides 8 billion times a second with other molecules on average.
Maxwell stayed in London until 1865, carrying out much of his most notable work.
He then returned to his family home in Scotland for six years, which he devoted to experiments, calculations and writing. In 1866 he wrote:
I have now my time fully occupied with experiments and speculations of a physical kind, which I could not undertake as long as I had public duties.
During this time he wrote much of the groundbreaking Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, which was published in 1873.
In 1871, he became Cavendish Professor at the University of Cambridge, where he remained until his death in 1879, aged just 48.
Color in the Human Eye and Photography
Experimenting with spinning color wheels, Maxwell deduced that the light receptors in the human eye are capable of seeing just three colors of light.
Later he reasoned that he could make use of his deduction to make a colored photograph – of tartan. He had photographs taken of tartan, first through a red light filter, then a green filter, then a blue filter.
The result of projecting the three images simultaneously on to a screen was a color image of the tartan cloth – the world’s first color photo, in 1861.
Electromagnetism – The First Unification of Nature’s Forces
Maxwell used mathematics to investigate the fundamental causes of electrical and magnetic behavior, producing what are, to professional physicists, some of the most beautiful equations they use – Maxwell’s Equations. These equations usually aren’t taught until later years in university physics or applied mathematics courses.
Maxwell proved that there must be electromagnetic waves, whose speed he calculated would be identical to the speed of light, which people already knew from experiments. Maxwell then knew that light must be an electromagnetic wave.
He also pointed out that infrared and other, as yet undiscovered electromagnetic rays, would travel at the speed of light. We now know that indeed there are other rays, such as radio waves, microwaves, UV rays and x-rays, and they all do travel at the speed of light.
Hard to Understand, they are the Key to our Modern World
Although we now recognize the genius, and indeed beauty of Maxwell’s work, it was controversial when he first published it in 1864. Not many people realized that Maxwell’s Equations accurately and completely described electromagnetism.
In 1887, eight years after Maxwell’s death, Heinrich Hertz finally demonstrated by experiment that there truly are electromagnetic waves, which behave in exactly the way Maxwell had predicted.
By 1901, Guglielmo Marconi was transmitting radio waves – the lowest energy form of electromagnetic waves – across the Atlantic Ocean, from Britain to Canada. The era of modern, wireless telecommunications had begun.
The Kinetic Theory of Gases and Statistical Physics – the end of Newton’s Physics
In his kinetic theory of gases, Maxwell established that the temperature of a gas was entirely dependent on the speed of its individual atoms or molecules.
He realized that the gas particles would not all move at the same speed, because collisions between them would speed some of them up and slow some of them down. Maxwell showed that particles in a gas would have a distribution of different speeds and what the distribution would be.
From this work, he showed that the Second Law of Thermodynamics – the law that heat always flows from higher temperature objects to lower temperature objects – is a statistical law, based on the behavior of huge numbers of particles. Although some individual particles might disobey the law, the majority obey the law. It is even possible that the law could be broken on a larger scale, but the likelihood of this happening is incredibly small.
A Drop in the Ocean
Maxwell likened the chances of one of these statistical laws being broken on a large scale to the chances of pouring a glass of water into the ocean, then later dipping the glass into the ocean and finding that it filled up with exactly the same molecules you had poured in earlier.
Using the distribution of behaviors of gas molecules, Maxwell developed statistical physics. His methods, and those further developed by Willard Gibbs were the keystones of the following century’s quantum physics, where no longer could we be absolutely sure about the behavior of small particles – we could only look at the chances of their behaving in particular ways.
Maxwell helped move physics away from the classical, mechanical world view of Newton towards the quantum, probabilistic view that we rely on today – a view that Albert Einstein was never happy with, saying famously that ‘God does not play dice with the Universe.’
An Early Demise
Sadly, James Clerk Maxwell was not to enjoy a long life. He died of abdominal cancer in 1879 at the age of just 48. Strangely, his mother had died at the same age, from the same disease. He was survived by his wife, Katherine.
With Maxwell’s passing, the world had lost one of its greatest minds.
Talking About Maxwell – Quotes
Author of this page: The Doc
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