15 Famous Muslim (Arab & Persian) Scientists and their Inventions

Muslim scientists and inventors, including Arabs, Persians and Turks, were probably hundreds of years ahead of their counterparts in the European Middle Ages. They drew influence from Aristotelian philosophy and Neo-platonists, as well as Euclid, Archimedes, Ptolemy and others. The muslims made innumerable discoveries and wrote countless books about medicine, surgery, physics, chemistry, philosophy, astrology, geometry and various other fields.

Today’s article discusses the most famous muslim scientists and inventors and their wonderful inventions.

Abu Nasr Al-Farabi (872 – 950)

Abu Nasr Al-Farabi

Also known as Alpharabius. Arab scientist and philosopher, considered as one of the preeminent thinkers of medieval era.

Al-Battani (858 – 929)


Also known as Albatenius. Arab mathematician, scientists and astronomer who improved existing values for the length of the year and of the seasons.

Ibn Sina (980 – 1037)

Ibn Sina

Also known as Avicenna. Persian philosopher and scientist known for his contributions to Aristotelian philosophy and medicine.


Ibn Battuta (1304 – 1369)

Ibn Battuta

Also known as Shams ad–Din. Arab traveler and scholar who wrote one of the most famous travel books in history, the Rihlah.

Ibn Rushd (1126 – 1198)

Ibn Rushd

Also known as Averroes. Arab philosopher and scholar who produced a series of summaries and commentaries on most of Aristotle’s works and on Plato’s Republic.

Muhammad ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi (780 – 850)

Muhammad ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi

Also known as Algoritmi or Algaurizin. His works introduced Hindu-Arabic numerals and the concepts of algebra into European mathematics.

Omar Khayyam (1048 – 1131)

Omar Khayyam

Persian mathematician, astronomer, and poet, known for his scientific achievements and Rubaiyat (“quatrains”).

Thabit ibn Qurra (826 – 901)

Thabit ibn Qurra

Also known as Thebit. Arab mathematician, physician and astronomer; who was the first reformer of the Ptolemaic system and the founder of statics.

Abu Bakr Al-Razi (865 – 925)

Abu Bakr Al-Razi

Also known as Rhazes. Persian alchemist and philosopher, who was one of the greatest physicians in history.

Jabir Ibn Haiyan (722 – 804)

Jabir Ibn Haiyan

Also known as Geber. The father of Arab chemistry known for his highly influential works on alchemy and metallurgy.

Ibn Ishaq Al-Kindi (801 – 873)

Ibn Ishaq Al-Kindi

Also known as Alkindus. Arab philosopher and scientist, who is known as the first of the Muslim peripatetic philosophers.

Ibn Al-Haytham (965 – 1040)

Ibn Al-Haytham

Also known as Alhazen. Arab astronomer and mathematician known for his important contributions to the principles of optics and the use of scientific experiments.

Ibn Zuhr (1091 – 1161)

Ibn Zuhr

Also known as Avenzoar. Arab physician and surgeon, known for his influential book Al-Taisir Fil-Mudawat Wal-Tadbeer (Book of Simplification Concerning Therapeutics and Diet).

Ibn Khaldun (1332 – 1406)

Ibn Khaldun

Arab historiographer and historian who developed one of the earliest nonreligious philosophies of history. Often considered as one of the forerunners of modern historiography, sociology and economics.

Ibn Al-Baitar (1197 – 1248)

Ibn Al-Baitar

Arab scientist, botanist and physician who systematically recorded the discoveries made by Islamic physicians in the Middle Ages.



  1. badar sultan minhas says

    That is one great work done and really informative. Suggestion is to have the names of books and scholars who are new to this world and not known. We need to have a database of old and current Muslim scientists and try to teach our young ones from their contributions as it will help our culture and psychological patterns of our thinking and cognition.

  2. szrayees says

    V hv been taught to study history through western lenses,they hv faded d image and contribution of muslims twords science.It was not, in fact, the apple that fell from the tree that told Newton about gravity,but the books of Ibn al-Haytham.

  3. Roro says

    ty guys so much it helped me in my science projects we should all be proud of these scientests